An earned run-in baseball is a type of run that scores against a pitcher. It has no benefit of an error or a passed ball, but the scoring will depend on the official scorer.
How Earned Run Happens
Because there is no defensive mishap, the official scorer will have to judge whether the specific run would get a score. So, if there aren’t any errors or passed ball in an inning or game, all the runs in such inning or game will be credited as earned runs. However, the official scorer must reconstruct the inning or game because it occurred without errors or passed balls.
When a pitcher exits a game with runners on a base, any earned runs that such runners will score will get counted against the exiting pitcher. The pitcher leaves the game or inning when he gets changed in the middle of such game or inning.
Earned Run Compared to Unearned Run
Unlike the earned run, where no errors or passed balls occur, there is an error in unearned runs, but it is harmless. The error takes place while the inning or the game is still ongoing. For instance, a runner on the first base gets to advance to the second base due to a passed ball. Because the runner would have been on at the second base anyway if not for the passed ball, the passed ball has no impact whatsoever on the unearned run calculation.
Earned Run When a Pitcher Exits in the Middle of Game, Inning
The most common example when an earned run happens when a pitcher gets changed in the middle of the game or inning is when the defensive team has two outs then makes an error on a play for the supposed third out. When this happens, a new pitcher will come into the game. The next batter, if he can hit a home run, his run becomes unearned as to the prior pitcher and the team. However, it will get counted as earned against the relief pitcher.
How Earned Run Affects the Pitcher
Both the total runs and earned runs will be tabulated as part of the statistics concerning the pitcher. However, it is specially denoted for an earned run since it gets used to calculate a pitcher’s earned run average or the ERA. The pitcher will then be held personally accountable for the scores made through earned runs.